Precision agriculture has come to revolutionize the agribusiness environment, with technologies that enable the improvement of planting, harvesting, control and production management routines. Such optimizations can be summed up in one word: profitability. Of these, special mention should be made of autopilot or simply RTK (Real Time Kinematic), as it is commonly called.
The operation of the agribusiness system everyone also knows, the planting area is georeferenced, and the planters and harvesters are guided by a radiocommunication link. Depending on the manufacturer of the product, this radio link may be in the 450 MHz or 900 MHz band. For those who purchase the system, these technical issues often go unnoticed, and can make all the difference in equipment performance and system return. investment.
It is important to highlight in this context the difference between homologation and licensing within Anatel. Approval is the authorization for marketing the product, responsibility of the manufacturer or distributor. Licensing is authorization to use, end customer responsibility. Such legal terms can cause confusion in managers, leading to the formation of inaccurate judgment about the obligations being contracted and hired.
Another factor that must be taken into account is that for the RTK service to work with quality and efficiency, the study of the frequency plan is necessary, which will mitigate the risk of interference and malfunction. In fact, when purchasing any telecommunications system, much more than the product is buying service availability, and for that, a project is essential to integrate the various layers of the system.
The 450 MHz band is licensed on a primary basis, meaning that the grantee may use it with protection from Anatel against harmful interference from other systems operating on a secondary basis.
Equipment that uses the 900 MHz band, in addition to technical restrictions regarding coverage, is not guaranteed to operate on a primary basis, as it cannot be licensed. Amazingly many consider this to be an advantage when it is in fact an extremely critical factor in the system, given that there is no legal protection in case of harmful interference (this rule applies to all services), and especially because the law prohibits it. the integration of gain antennas and power amplifiers.
As RTK equipment in the 900 MHz band, supported by Anatel resolution 506, (which requires a huge range of equipment, all designed to operate indoors, such as gate remote control, toy remote control, biomedical doctors, among others) they cannot be licensed. Such details of the standard, unknown to many, have been the reason for numerous failures and poor performance of many systems.
In short, the RTK system operating at 900 MHz can be used in compliance with Anatel standard with the original internal antenna of the equipment. Only in this way, without coupling of accessories (antennas, amplifiers, among others) will the system be operating regularly.
Dary Bonomi Avanzi is the CEO of the Avanzi Institute of Telecommunications, a nonprofit organization dedicated to consumer protection of telecommunications products and services.